Etymology[ edit ] The coining of the word “photography” is usually attributed to Sir John Herschel in Camera obscura Principle of a box camera obscura with mirror A natural phenomenon, known as camera obscura or pinhole image, can project a reversed image through a small opening onto an opposite surface. This principle may have been known and used in prehistoric times. The earliest known written record of the camera obscura is to be found in Chinese writings called Mozi , dated to the 4th century BCE. Until the 16th century the camera obscura was mainly used to study optics and astronomy, especially to safely watch solar eclipses without damaging the eyes. In the later half of the 16th century some technical improvements were developed: In Giambattista della Porta advised using the camera obscura as a drawing aid in his popular and influential books. Della Porta’s advice was widely adopted by artists and since the 17th century portable versions of the camera obscura were commonly used – first as a tent, later as boxes. The box type camera obscura was the basis for the earliest photographic cameras when photography was developed in the early 19th century.
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Chinese alcoholic rice wine containers. Alcoholic beverage and the process of fermentation: The earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation and the consumption of alcoholic beverages was discovered in neolithic China dating from — BC. Examination and analysis of ancient pottery jars from the neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in northern China revealed fermented residue left behind by the alcoholic beverages they once contained.
Dear Twitpic Community – thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
Famous Scientists B. Thales of Miletus – Greek philosopher; developed theory of matter based upon water; recorded the attractive properties of rubbed amber and lodestone. Heraclitus – Greek philosopher; first of the Greeks to develop a theory of the human soul; he praised its creative resources and spoke of the importance of self-exploration; he spoke of the logos that is common to all and said that the universe is ruled by logos; he always urged that close attention be given to the polarites and concealed structures emodied in language.
His famous claim that an idividual can and cannot step into the same river twice reveals an interest in criteria of unity and identity; even though all material constituents have undergone change, it is still, in a sence, the same river. Preoccupied with change, he declared that fire is the central element of the universe, and he postulated a world with no beginning and no end Pythagoras – Greek philosopher and mathematician; held that numbers were basic to matter; the Pythagorean Theorem is named for his geometric formulation; developed atomic theory; students of his philosophy emphasized geometrical form as a basic property of atoms; developed mathematical relationships which led to musical harmony.
Empedocles – Some suggest c. To account for real change, he assumed that there must be more than one kind of matter, and he postulated four roots as elements; earth, air, fire, and water. Love and hate were considered principles of attraction and repulsion that alternately dominated the universe in a recurring cycle. Empedocles presented a kind of biological theory of natural selection in an imaginative poem, On Nature.
He also played an importqant role in the development of the Western or Sicilian school of Greek medicine. He cured a plague at the Sicilian city of Selinus and claimed he was a god. One legend, which forms the basis of Matthew Arnold’s poem Empedocles on Etna, held the Empedocles, tired of life and wanting people to believe that the gods had taken him with them, committed suicide by leaping into the crater of Mt. Socrates – Greek philosopher; emphasized the study of human nature in relationship to society; influence the growth of science through standards for clear definitions and classifications, for logic and order, and for prudent skepticism.
List of Chinese inventions
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Invention, the act of bringing ideas or objects together in a novel way to create something that did not exist before. The incandescent lightbulb—the quintessential invention, attributed to Thomas Alva Edison in Indeed, the brain appears to be a natural inventor. As part of the act of perception, humans assemble, arrange, and manipulate incoming sensory information so as to build a dynamic , constantly updated model of the outside world.
The survival value of such a model lies in the fact that it functions as a template against which to match new experiences, so as to rapidly identify anything anomalous that might be life-threatening. Such a model would also make it possible to predict danger. The predictive act would involve the construction of hypothetical models of the way the world might be at some future point.
Such models could include elements that might, for whatever reason, be assembled into novel submodels inventive ideas. Replica stone tools of the Acheulean industry, used by Homo erectus and early modern humans, and of the Mousterian industry, used by Neanderthals. Top, left to right Mid-Acheulean bifacial hand ax and Acheulean banded-flint hand ax. Centre Acheulean hand tool. Bottom, left to right Mousterian bifacial hand ax, scraper, and bifacial point.
As early as bce tiny geometric clay models, used to represent sheep and grain, were kept in clay envelopes, to be used as inventory tallies or else to represent goods during barter.
History of photography
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A roti of fine white maida, leavened, rolled out oval in shape, sprinkled with nigella kalonji seeds and baked in a tandoor or ordinary oven. Small, mud plastered ovens closely resembling present-day tandoors’ have been excavated at Kalibangan, and Indus Valley site. In about AD , Amir Khusrau notes naan-e-tanuk light bread and naan-e-tanuri cooked in a tandoor oven at the imperial court in Delhi. Naan was in Mughal times a popular breakfast food, accompanied by kheema or kabab, of the humbler Muslims.
It is today associated with Punjabis, and is a common restaurant item, rather han a home-made one, all over India. Achaya [Oxford University Press: The ancient recipe remains virtually unchanged. Current applications for this bread product reflect a broad range of culinary adaptation and professional creativity. Foodservice professionals agree wraps of all kinds are hot. Lavash are baked in tandoor ovens.
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Wujing Zongyao , Four Great Inventions , List of Chinese inventions , and Heilongjiang hand cannon Based on a 9th-century Taoist text, the invention of gunpowder by Chinese alchemists was likely an accidental byproduct from experiments seeking to create elixir of life. In the following centuries various gunpowder weapons such as bombs , fire lances , and the gun appeared in China. A slow match for flame throwing mechanisms using the siphon principle and for fireworks and rockets is mentioned.
Heroes and Villains – A little light reading. Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many.
Everything that belongs in the household. Hsieh spent many years designing all sorts of technological products, during which he found that few people think about applying material technology to kitchenware. Therefore, one day, when he saw a CPU heatsink in a computer factory, he thought about whether the technology could be used for other applications. After countless experiments and improvements, this year THAT! It also pays greater attention to usage features, incorporating a barely perceptible incline that steers melted liquid towards its integrated drip tray, and applying high-performance anodizing surface treatment technology on the board itself for better durability and premium touch.
Modern defrosting tray puts an end to health concern and inconvenience issues associated with traditional room-temperature thawing, as well as to taste altering microwave defrosting. Never again will one need to make last minute menu changes because a certain item was not defrosted, or throw away food because a defrosted item could not be consumed in time.
Invention Of Dating
Wikimedia Deutschland speed dating at Wikimania Usually advance registration is required for speed dating events. Men and women are rotated to meet each other over a series of short “dates” usually lasting from three to eight minutes depending on the organization running the event. At the end of each interval, the organizer rings a bell, clinks a glass, or blows a whistle to signal the participants to move on to the next date. At the end of the event participants submit to the organizers a list of who they would like to provide their contact information to.
If there is a match, contact information is forwarded to both parties. Contact information cannot be traded during the initial meeting, in order to reduce pressure to accept or reject a suitor to his or her face.
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Ancient Chinese Inventions and Discoveries that Shaped the World October 12, 53 Comments Ancient Chinese Inventions and Discoveries that Shaped the World Long recognized in the West for its natural and man-made monuments, for its silks and its satins and for its delectable cuisine, China is also credited with inventions and discoveries which continue to influence our world today as they did at their inception.
When the Italian merchant Marco Polo visited China during the Song Dynasty in , he found a place far more technologically advanced than anywhere in Western Europe. Here are just a few and far-reaching contributions of the Chinese: The Chinese developed the abacus, a counting device, around AD. The instrument consisted of a rectangular wooden frame with parallel rods. Each rod holds beads as counters. The rods are separated into upper and lower parts by a crossbar. Each bead above the crosspiece is worth five units, and each below is worth one.
The rungs or rods from right to left indicate place value in powers of ten — ones, tens, hundred, and so on. While the first documentation of a Chinese Abacus has been dated around the 14th century, some form of the abacus or counting rods have appeared in history as early as BC in ancient Sumaria. Mentioned in ancient Roman texts, as well as among Egyptian hieroglyphics and Greek artifacts dated as early as BC, the abacus has survived the centuries with its purpose intact.
It is basically a tool for counting and performing basic arithmetic.